Amateka

Muzehe Karyabwite aragoreka amateka y'u Rwanda!

Category: History
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Nitwa Azarias Ngendahimana. Navukiye i Gitarama/Kabgayi mu mwaka w’ 1942. Ibyo mvuga hasi hano ni ibyo niboneye n’amaso yanjye, si amabwire. Mu kiganiro giherutse guhita ku rubuga  “le médiateur –umuhuza”, cyitwa ngo “Muzehe Karyabwite yumva ate indepandansi…ubwigenge?” uriya Karyabwite yashimirwa kuvuga icyo atekereza ku byabaye mu gihe u Rwanda rwaharaniraga ubwigenge no guca akarengane muri rubanda. Aliko kandi ibyinshi avuga aravanga ukuri n’ibitari ukuri (demi-vérités) .

 

Aho nemeranwa  nawe ni aho asoza ikiganiro agira ati:” indepandansi ni ukwiyumva mo ko igihugu ari icyawe”… Ni byo koko, ariko imyumvire siyo arimo avuga, ntanubwo iyo myumvire avuga ayihishura. Atangira ikiganiro avuga ko se umubyara yagabiwe gutwara mu Kinyaga (hitwaga teritwari Shangugu icyo gihe). Ni ukuvuga ko akomoka mu bwoko bw’abatutsi, ko mu gihe cy’amashyaka yagiye muri Lunari. Bityo rero uko tuzi imyumvire ya Lunari ku byerekeye igihugu, yatekerezaga ko igihugu ari icyayo, mu gihe yabaga yihariye ubutegetsi bwose bwa politiki, u bukungu, imilimo n’uburezi.

 

Bitabaye ibyo, niba koko Lunari yarashaka ubwigenge bw’abanyarwanda, Karyabwite yadusobanurira ate ukuntu, yabonye u Rwanda rumaze kubona ubwigenge bucagase (autonomie) muli 1960, rusimbuje  ingoma ya cyami intwaro ya Republika muli 1961 yiganje mo abahutu, maze aho kugira ngo bafatanye n’abandi (abalunari) ahubwo bagahitamo iy’ubuhungiro, banga gusa gutegekwa cyangwa gutegekana n’abahutu?

 

Yadusobanurira ate ibitero by’inyenzi kuva muli 1960 bifashisha abaswayire bo mu Gacurabwenge bayobowe n’uwitwa Numa wayogoje za Musambira ashaka kugera i Kavumu kwa Kayibanda? Yadusobanurira ate intambara y’inkotanyi kuva 1990, zashoje zimaze kubona ko imishyikirano yo gukemura ikibazo cy’impunzi zitwazaga cyari kigiye gukemurwa, maze ahubwo zigahindura imvugo ngo burya  ikibazo si impunzi, ahubwo ni demokarasi itarangwa mu Rwanda? Si ukubera se  ko inkotanyi zari zimaze kubona ko zitazigera zitegeka zonyine?  N’ibindi n’ibindi byinshi…

 

Tugarutse ku kiganiro nyirizina, uko Karyabwite yemeza ibintu cyangwa abibona, biragoretse ibi byavuna ijosi, n’akari kera bigatera iseseme. Reka  mvuge kuri ibi bitatu gusa: 1)Umwami Rudahigwa; 2) Amashyaka ya politiki; 3) Ubwigenge.

 

Umwami Rudahigwa.


Mutara wa 3 Rudahigwa, amateka nyayo avuga ko yimye ingoma mu w’ 1931 asimbura se Musinga ababiligi bari bamaze gukuraho bakamucira i Kamembe, nyuma akajyanwa Moba ho muri Kongo. Icyo yazize sinakimenya, kuko ntari mpari. Gusa nshingiye ku mateka nize, ntekereza ko Musinga yazize kuba yarafatanyije n’abadage kurwanya ababiligi mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi yose (1914-1918). Benshi mwumvise ingabo zitwaga Indugaruga, mwumva Impoma zo kuri Rubavu/Gisenyi. Ni iyo ntambara nyine iyo mitwe ya Musinga yarwanaga ifasha abadage. Ikindi yaba yarazize ni ukuba yari atsimbaraye ku mitegekere ya cyami yicaga igakiza uwo ishatse n’igihe ishakiye nta nkurikizi.

 

Rudahigwa yaje kubatizwa muli gatolika yitwa Karoli Leo Petero hamwe na nyina, umugabekazi Kankazi wafashe izina rya Radegonda, n’umwamikazi Gicanda yitwa Rozariya bahise basezerana gikirisitu.  Ibi byabereye i Kabgayi mu mpera ya z’ 1940. Nabyirutse nsanga abakirisitu barimo data na mama bumvise iyo misa bakibivuga nk’ibimaze kuba. Nyuma muri 1956, abibwiwe cyangwa abyiboneye, Rudahigwa yasanze hari akarengane k’ubuhake mu gihugu, ahita ategeka ko abatutsi bagabana inka n’abagaragu babo cyane b’abahutu, ubuhake bugashira. Icyo gihe hari mu myiteguro yo guhimbaza isabukuru y’imyaka 25 Rudahigwa yari amaze ku ngoma.

 

Muli iyo minsi ya yubile yabereye i Nyanza ( Karyabwite agomba kuba abizi kuko abashefu n’abasushefu bose bari batumiwe), hatangajwe icyiswe “Imbaga y’Inyabutatu Ijyambere” ndetse hasohoka n’imidali  yanditse ayo gambo bavugaga ko ari ishyirahamwe ry’umwami.

 

Icy’ingenzi navuga kuri Rudahigwa,  kubera kuba naramubonye n’amaso yanjye, ndetse tukanaganira, ni uko yari umuntu ukunda urubyiruko akaruhatira kwiga ngo rujijuke. Aho mbihera ni uko kuva muri 1957 niga mu iseminari i Kabgayi (iri ku nzira ijya Kigali), igihe cyose Rudahigwa yabaga avuye i Kigali cyangwa yaje gusura nyina i Shyogwe, yahagararaga ku Iseminari kuturamutsa no kutuganiriza byo kuduhwiturira amajyambere.

 

Imurika Mpuza-mahanga lyaberye i Buruseli muli 1958, Rudahigwa yarigiye mo koko aherekejwe na nyina n’intore zitabarika. Bayitaga Exposition Universelle” ntabwo ari exposition modiale nk’uko Karyabwite abivuga.Iriya Atomium iri i Buruseli ni urwibutso rwayo. Nibyo koko kandi Rudahigwa yinyuruje protokole anyarukira mu Budage muri gari ya moshi. Hali amafoto abyerekana. Ababiligi ngo ntibabyishimiye, ariko kandi ntacyo bari kubikora ho. Nyuma agarutse mu Rwanda, umwami Rudahigwa yaje kwiyerekana i Kabgayi n’umulyango we mu birori byabereye ku kibuga cya seminari. Ingoma zaravuze, intore zirahamiriza biracika. Hari haje intore ‘zumwami  ziyobowe n’ikirangirire Butera bwa Nturo, hakaba n’izo kwa nyina i Shyogwe, maze zirema ingamba ebyili zo kurushanwa. Zimwe zaturutse ku izamu ry’ikibuga ibumoso, izindi zituruka iburyo maze zihurira hagati zikubita umugara zivuna sambwe karahava. Narabibonye, nari mpari.

 

Abantu bakwibaza bati kuki byabereye I Kabgayi.  Muri icyo gihe, u Rwanda rwari rufite kapitali ebyili. Kigali y’ubutegetsi bw’abakoloni, na Kabgayi y’ubutegetsi bwa Kiliziya Gatolika. Kubera gushwana n’ababiligi, umwami yashatse kwiyereka Musenyeri i Kabgayi bisa no gutanga raporo ko ibintu byagenze neza mu butumwa  bw’igihugu yari avuye mo. Nyuma y’aho gato umugabakazi Kankazi yaje kudusura mu iseminari no kutuganirira ku Bubiligi.Nawe yakundaga abaseminari akabafata nk’abana be, kuburyo ndetse yahoraga atwoherereza ingumba yo kurya ku minsi mikuru. Icyababaje ni uko Rudahigwa yaje gutanga bisa n’ibitunguranye atageze kubyo yaduhatiraga gukora. Mu bamushyinguye i Mwima na Mushirarungu nari mo, kubera ko ari twe abaseminari twaririmbye misa yo kumuherekeza kuwa kabiri kuri 28/7/1959. Imana imuhe iruhuko ridashira.

 

Amashyaka ya Politiki.


Navuga ko byose byatangiye muri 1956 igihe Rudahigwa ashyira ho “imbaga y’inyabutatu ijyambere” yaje guhinduka Lunari. Mu ntangiriro byari nk’ishyirahamwe rigamije gukusanyiriza abanyarwanda bose mu gatebo kamwe, byo kwerekana ko nta karengane kari muri rubanda, ko ahubwo abaturage bose bunze ubumwe.

 

Muli icyo gihe ariko mu iseminari i Kabgayi hakundaga guteranira inama-ngarukamwaka y’abahoze mu iseminari nkuru ya Nyakibanda.  Ni uko nabonye bwa mbere Gitera Yozefu n’abandi benshi. Kayibanda we nari nsanzwe muzi kubera kuvuka no kwiga i Kabgayi. Ibyavugirwaga muli ayo manama sinabimenya na busa Gusa icyo nzi ni uko aribwo hatangiye gusohoka muli Kinyamateka inyandiko za Kayibanda zitwaga “Ubutegetsi bwa Demokarasi”.

 

Nyuma y’imbaga y’inyabutatu ijya mbere, Gitera Yozefu yaje gushing APROSOMA  muli 1957 Astrida (Butare y’ubu). Nayo yali ishyirahamwe rigamije kuzamura rubanda rugufi. Ryaje kuba ishyaka nyuma ariko riganzwa na MDR Parmehut kubera guhuzagurika.

 

Abahutu bajijutse hirya no hino mu gihugu, ariko cyane baturutse Gitarama na Astrida (Butare) bishyize hamwe basohora inyandiko bise “Manifeste y’abahutu” yasabaga umwami gusaranganya ubutegatsi, ubukungu, imilimo n’amashuli mu bana bose b’igihugu. Nibwo abiyise abagaragu bakuru b’ibwami basaraga. Havutse amashyaka ya politiki : Lunari yiganje mo intagondwa z’abatutsi, Aprosoma y’abahutu bo muli Butare na MDR yiganje  muli Gitarama, ariko ifite amashami mu Ruhengeri (BICAMUMPAKA)  na Gisenyi (Mpakaniye) . Abatutsi  babonaga ko ibintu bigomba guhinduka baremye ishyaka RADER rya Bwanakweli. Aho Muzehe Karyabwite avuga ko Aprosoma yarimo ngo n’abatutsi baciriritse ni ikinyoma cyambaye ubusa. Nta mututsi nigeze numva wagiye mu ishyaka ry’abahutu icyo gihe.  Ahubwo hari benshi bahisemo kuryuma ho byo kwiyorobeka ngo barebe iyo ibintu bigana.

 

Rudahigwa amaze gutanga muli 1959 niho ibintu byakomenye. MDR yahindutse Parmehutu, ishyaka riharanira abahutu, bigamije kureshya abahutu bose ngo baryibone mo ku bwinshi, bazabone uko batsinda andi mashayaka mu matora. Ibyo Karyabwite avuga ngo ni Museneri Perraudin wabwiye Kayibanda ngo nareme ishayaka ryitwa Parmehutu, nta kuli kuri mo na busa.Ese ahubwo Karyabwite yaba azi ko inama za MDR abarwanashyaka bazikoraga n’ijoro ku itara rya peteroli mu ishyamba rya seminari? Niba se Perraudin yari abiri mo, kuki atabahaga icyumba muli évêché? Ese ubundi azi uko Kabgayi isa, ingana, iteye?

 

Jye bariya bagabo bombi ndabazi navuga ko bihagije. Kayibanda muzi kuva 1953  nkiri rubyogo niga mu wa gatatu wa primeri. Muzi ho kuba umunyabwenge, ufite ibitekerezo, wubaha ariko wigenga. Musenyeri Perraudin muzi kuva yaba Musenyeri  wa Kabgayi muli 1955. Misa yo kumuha ubwepiskopi nari nyirimo ndi umuhereza. Niwe wankomeje muri uwo mwaka. Niwe wanyohereje kwiga mu iseminari nto n’inkuru mu Nyakibanda. Twarabanye, twarasangiye ku meza, dusabana ku buryo bwose. Ewe maze no kuva mu Nyakibanda twakomeje kugenderana kugeza ejobundi asubiye iwabo mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru.

 

Ibyo Muzehe avuga rero ni amabwire, bya bindi abalunari bakomeje kumuvuga bamuziza ko yabaye uwa mbere mu kubwira  ubutegetsi bwa cyami ko igihugu kidasangiwe n’abana bacyo nta gihugu kirimo. Bati “nguwo umutware w’abanzi bigihugu bashaka kwica umwami Kigeri”. Mumuhigire kubura hasi no kubura hejuru. Ibi tubisanga muli rya tangazo ry’abiyise abagaragu bakuru b’i bwami ryasohotse Rudahigwa amaze gushyingurwa. Na n’ubu Musenyeri Perraudin yisangiye Rurema abalunari baracyahiga umuzimu we. Mu by’ukuri se koko, ibya Kayibanda na Perraudin Karyabwite abizi  ate ko atabihagaze ho, ndetse bishoboke ko na bariya bantu atabazi?

 

Indepandansi – Ubwigenge.


Nibyo koko muri za 1956-1957 hari umuyaga w’ubwigenge mu bihugu byari bikolonijwe n’amahanga yizo za Burayi. Cyane byari bikaze muli Ghana ya Kwame Nkrumah, muli Kongo-Brazzaville ya Padiri Filiberi Yulu, muli Aljeriya hali intambara yo kwibohoza, muli Tuniziya kwa Habib Burgiba na Misiri ya Naseri. Muli Kongo y’abaturanyi byaje nka serwakira igihe cya Lumumba. I Burundi ho nta n’inzozi zo kwigenga bigeze, no kubugera ho babikesha u Rwanda. Ibya Tanzaniya na Uganda  byo ni iby’ejo bundi.

 

Muzehe ati “Lunari yonyine niyo yasabaga ubwigenge n’aho amashyaka y’abahutu yisabiraga otonomi y’imyaka 30”! Iriya myaka yo sinzi aho yayivanye. Nibyo koko, Lunari yashakaga ubwigenge bwa huti-huti igamije kuzihererana abahutu ikabasubiza ku ngoyi ya gihake abazungu bamaze gutaha.Ndifuza kumumenyesha ko muri bwa bwenge n’ubushishozi bwa Kayibanda, impirimbanyi za demokarasi zahisemo kubanza kwikiza ingoma ya cyami mbere yo gusaba ubwigenge bwari kubaviramo gusubira ku ngoyi.  Bitabaye kwirengagiza koko, ubu muzehe Karyabwite abona ubwigenge bumariye iki abenegihugu mu Rwanda rwa FPR-inkotanyi?

 

Mu kugera ku bwigenge rero, ijisho rya rubanda ryabanje kwikiza kalinga n’ibyayo byose, zishyira ho Repubulika n’amategeko agenga ubutegetsi bwa demokarasi. Ibyo Karyabwite avuga ngo ababiligi bayobowe na Paul Heny Spaak nibo boheje abahutu  babashyira mu ivalisi bajyana mu muryango w’abibumbye ngo nabo basabe indepandansi, ndabona ari ugupfundikanya no gupapira. Mbere na mbere, intumwa mu nama yo gusaba ubwigenge zayobowe na Kayibanda ibera muli Hotel de Ville mu mujyi wa Anvers mu Bubiligi. Ikindi, uriya  Spaak Karyabwite avuga, siwe wari ministiri wa za koloni, ahubwo ndumva yali uwitwa Vinyi (Vigny). Naho Spaak yari minisitiri w’ububanyi n’amahanga, ari nayo mpamvu igihe cyo gusuzuma iby’ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda,Loni yamutumiye ngo aze asobanure uko abyumva. Nibutse, cyangwa mbwire abatabizi ko icyo gihe Loni yo yashakaga gufatanya u Rwanda n‘u Burundi ngo bibe igihugu kimwe cyigenga. Nibwo Spaak uriya ahagurutse atangariza Loni imibare ishekeje cyane  ati: “PAUVRETE PLUS PAUVRETE EGALE PAUVRETE AU CARRE!” Alibyo kuvuga ngo gufatanya ibihugu bibili bikennye cyane (nk’u Rwanda n’u Burundi) ni ukubikenesha kabili. Ndibuka rwose iyo mvugo kuko icyo gihe  turi abaseminari twajyaga tuyisubira mo no kwishongora cyane, dutangarira iyo mibare ya minisitiri muzima, n’ubwo twumvaga ko atari imibare nyamibare, ahubwo yari imvugo ya dipolomasi.  Mu gihe cyo guha u Rwanda ubwigenge, u Burundi nabwo bwaboneye ho ngo budasigara inyuma kandi ku rupapuro hari handitse RWANDA-URUNDI. Nguko uko ibihugu byacu byombi byigenze umunsi umwe wa 01/07/1962.

 

Ibyinshi muri ibi muzehe Karyabwite avuga ni amabwire, ntabyo yahagaze ho. Kandi rero ni mu gihe. Nonese ko byose byakorewe mu Marangara, i Nyanza n’i Butare (Astrida), Karyabwite yigeze ahakandagiza ikirenge muli icyo gihe (être sur le théâtre des opérations / to be at scene of events). Politiki yose yakiniwe iyo kure yo mu Kinyaga aho yari ari, cyangwa se ari no mu buhungiro nyuma ya 1959. Simpamya ko kuba Karyabwite yari umwana w’umutware sibyo byamuhuje na bariya bose kuva ku mwami n’umuryango we kugeza ku barwanashyaka unyuze kuri Musenyeri. Iyo aza kuba yarigaga mu ri turiya duce ho umuntu yagenekereza. Aliko kandi si mu iseminari, kuko abanyakinyaga twiganye ntarimo. Azabaze ba Shyirakera, Rwakareke, Ruberizesa, Gashugi, Ngirincuti, Gashabizi n’abandi ntarondoye bari bahari icyo gihe. Ibi byose ndabimubwira kugira ngo yumve koko ko  ibyo mvuga nabihagaze ho.

 

Muti ese wowe ubwigenge ububona ute ? Ubwigenge ni ukugira ighugu kiyobowe neza n’ubutegetsi bugendera ku mahame ya demokarasi, mu mucyo (transparency)  nta buryamirane ubwo aribwo bwose mu benegihugu, haba muri politiki n’ubutabera,  mu  bukungu, mu burezi no mu buzima bwa buri munsi. Umutegetsi witwaye nabi akabihanirwa (accountability) Hano mu Rwanda bizagerwa ho ari uko rubanda yemeye kwicarana ikinegura ibwizanya ukuri nta kubindikiranya Ariko kandi biracyagoranye  mu gihe bamwe bagifite imyumvire nk’iya Lunari yo mu myaka y’ 1959-1960.

 

Ngibyo, nguko.

 

A. Ngendahimana, Kabgayi.